International Centre for Prison Studies

A partner of the University of Essex

Russian Federation

CountryRussian Federation
Ministry responsible
Ministry of Justice
Prison administration
Federal Service for the Implementation of Punishment
Contact address
Zhitnaya street 14, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow, Russian Federation
Telephone
+7 095 982 1900
Fax
+7 095 982 1930
Website
Head of prison administration (and title)
Gennadiy Kornienko
Head
Prison population total (including pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners)
675 000
at 1.7.2014 (national prison administration)
Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population)
470
based on an estimated national population of 143.75 million at beginning of July 2014 (from Russian State Statistics Committee figures)
Pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners (percentage of prison population)
17.1%
(1.7.2014 - prisoners held in pre-trial SIZO institutions or facilities functioning as SIZOs)
Female prisoners (percentage of prison population)
8.2%
(1.7.2014)
Juveniles / minors / young prisoners incl. definition (percentage of prison population)
0.3%
(of convicted prisoners, 1.1.2014 - under 18)
Foreign prisoners (percentage of prison population)
4.2%
(31.12.2009)
Number of establishments / institutions
997
(1.7.2014 - 219 pre-trial SIZO institutions, 729 corrective colonies, 8 prisons, 41 juvenile colonies)
Official capacity of prison system
903 493
(1.1.2012)
Occupancy level (based on official capacity)
83.6%
(1.1.2012)
Recent prison population trend
(year, prison population total, prison population rate)
1992 722,636 487
1995 920,685 622
1998 1,009,863 688
2001 925,072 636
2004 847,004 588
2007 871,609 613
2010 864,197 609

Female prison population: trend

The table below gives an indication of the trend in the female prison population. The final row shows the latest figures available.

It consists of the number of female prisoners in the prison population on a single date in the year (or the annual average) and the percentage of the total prison population that female prisoners constituted on that day. 

The final column shows the female prison population rate per 100,000 of the national population.

                                              RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Year

Number of
female
prisoners

Percentage
of total
prison population

Female prison
population rate
(per 100,000 of
national population)

2002

2006

2010

53,683

58,400

67,900

5.8%

6.7%

8.1%

37.0

41.0

47.6

2014

55,400

8.2%

38.6

The number of female prisoners fluctuates and so the above figures give an indication of the trend but the picture is inevitably incomplete.  

The female prison population rate is calculated on the basis of the national population total. All national population figures are inevitably estimates but the estimates used in the World Prison Brief are based on official national figures, United Nations figures or figures from other recognised international authorities.

(If the rate were calculated on the basis of the number of females in the national population it would of course be approximately double the figure in the final column).

Pre-trial/remand prison population: trend

The table below gives an indication of the recent trend in the pre-trial/remand prison population. The final row shows the latest figures available.

It consists of the number of pre-trial/remand prisoners in the prison population on a single date in the year (or the annual average) and the percentage of the total prison population that pre-trial/remand prisoners constituted on that day.  

The final column shows the pre-trial/remand population rate per 100,000 of the national population. 

                                                 RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Year

Number in
pre-trial/remand
imprisonment

Percentage
of total
prison population

Pre-trial/remand
population rate
(per 100,000 of
national population)

2000

2005

2010

232,864

161,810

119,010

25.2%

19.7%

14.5%

160

113

83

2014

115,545

17.1%

80

It should be noted that the number of pre-trial/remand prisoners fluctuates from day to day, month to month and year to year. Consequently the above figures give an indication of the trend but the picture is inevitably incomplete.                                                      

The pre-trial/remand population rate is calculated on the basis of the national population total. All national population figures are inevitably estimates but the estimates used in the World Prison Brief are based on official national figures, United Nations figures or figures from other recognised international authorities. 

 

The information/assessments that follow are not those of ICPS. The source is indicated below each entry. Please use the link provided to access the original document. 

Prison conditions

Prison conditions

Conditions in prisons and detention centers varied but were sometimes harsh and life-threatening. Limited access to health care, food shortages, abuse by guards and inmates, inadequate sanitation, and overcrowding were common in prisons, colonies, and other detention facilities. 

Health, nutrition, ventilation, and sanitation standards were generally poor but varied among facilities. Access to potable water, which sometimes was rationed, also varied. The federal minimum standard of space per person in detention is 43 square feet, which was generally observed.

On January 10, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a pilot judgment in the case of Ananyev and Others v. Russia, finding the government in violation of the provision of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibiting inhuman and degrading treatment. The ECHR noted that problems in the pretrial detention system were systemic and urged the government to improve conditions of detention by shielding toilets in cells, removing netting from cell windows, and increasing the frequency of showers. The ECHR also called on the government to change the applicable legal framework, as well as practices and attitudes; ensure that pretrial detention is only used when necessary; establish maximum capacity for each remand prison; and ensure that victims have the ability to lodge complaints effectively about inadequate detention conditions and that they obtain appropriate compensation.

Read more

US State Department Human Rights Country Report 2012

http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204331

Pages

PDF

A Human Rights Approach to Prison Management: Handbook for Prison Staff. First edition. Russian version.

Core Publications
A Human Rights Approach to Prison Management: Handbook for Prison Staff
02/07/2002
Author: 
Andrew Coyle
Countries: